"Located at 885 metres above sea level, the site covers a hill in a series of terraces bordered by retaining walls of stone that are accessed by about 400 successive andesite steps rising about 95 metres. It is covered with massive rectangular stones of volcanic origin. The Sundanese people consider the site sacred and believe it was the result of King Siliwangi's attempt to build a palace in one night. The asymmetric Punden Berundak faces northwest, to Mount Gede and was constructed for the purpose of worship. Based on various dating techniques, the site was completed by 5000 BC and quite likely much earlier."
"Gunung Padang was originally a natural volcano
Around 10,000 years ago, possibly back to 20,000 BC, the modifications to the hill began.
Around 9,000 years ago, it began the construction of it being wrapped in andesite columns.
Around 7,000 years ago, the site was renovated once more and they added parallel layers of stone columns.
Around 3,000 years ago, a new group covered the structure in soil."
"A survey conducted in 2012 showed the following:
The site was dated 6,500 years BP (before present) by carbon radiometric dating at 3–4 metres below the surface (12,500 years at 8 to 10 metres below the surface), and the artifacts at the surface date to about 4,800 years BP.
Based on geoelectric, georadar, and geomagnetic testing, at least up to 15 metres from the surface there is construction with large chambers.
Unlike the south side with its 5 stone terraces, the east side has 100 stone terraces with width and height of 2x2 metres. The west side also has stone terraces but is still covered by soil and bush, and the north side has, in addition to a 1.5 metre-wide stair, terraces also.
The site area is approximately 25 hectares, in contrast for example to Borobudur Temple, which occupies only 1.5 hectares."
This was Wikipedia. But an article "Gunung Padang - Southeast Asia's Largest and Most Enigmatic Megalithic Complex is it a Pyramid Hill 12,000 Years Older Than Gobekli Tepe" informs:
"Conventionally, archaeologists and historians place the construction of Gunung Padang’s megalithic structures firmly within the Bronze Age, ca. 2500-1500 BC. However, geological surveys conducted at the site since 2011 by Indonesian geologist Danny Hilman Natawidjaja of the Indonesian Centre for Geotechnical Research suggest the monument is much older – much older indeed.Core drilling samples and other exploratory excavations have uncovered evidence that Gunung Padang is a multi-leveled structure, one phase being built on top of the next, with evidence of activity on the hill at 22,000-20,000 BC, 14,700 BC, 9,600 BC, 4700 BC and 2800 BC, the final date being the age of the megalithic structures visible today. Indeed, Danny Hilman and his team now believe that the entire hill is an artificial pyramid of incredible antiquity. If correct, this would make it the oldest built structure anywhere in the world. The ranges of dates cited above derive from carbon-14 testing of organic materials taken from core drilling samples extracted from a series of different depths."
"Danny agrees with this theory. 3D geo-electric, geo-magnetic and geo-radar surveys have revealed the presence of a hollow chamber 10 metres in width, height and length at a depth beneath the hill of approximately 25 metres. It apparently even has two doors in its hallway. He adds that the existence of this suspected cave chamber was the most likely impetus behind the construction of the multi-layered pyramid structure as early as the Upper Palaeolithic age. This is supported by the organic samples extracted from this great depth, which have produced radiocarbon dates in the range of 22,000-20,000 BC."
According to the article above, the technical activity of people on this hill began at least 24,000 years ago. Subsequent layers added in the next millennia had religious character and probably covered something that had practical nature for the residents lived in Java dozens thousands years ago. This idea appeared in my mind after visit in Borobudur.
"Borobudur is a 9th - century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia. It is the world's largest Buddhist temple. The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. It is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. "
Climbing up the pyramid you can see strange gargoyles. An example of one of them you can see in photos shown below. It looks like a being from another world, or like a technical device.
"a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (such as śarīra – typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, and stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them.
Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya.
Some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterraneanto the Indus valley, and can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia (tomb of Midas, 8th c. BCE), Lydia (such as the tomb of Alyattes, 6th c. BCE), or in Phoenicia (tombs of Amrit, 5th c. BCE)".
Inside each stupa at the top of the Borobudur pyramid there is a sitting Buddha, what is shown in the picture below.
Below it is the plan of the pyramid photographed from the book "Memories of Majapahit".
According to anthropological theories, modern man has been living on Earth since 200,000 years. Our civilization has been developing for over dozen thousand years. If a man from 200,000 years ago had the same intellectual and physical abilities as people living now, why has he waited over 180,000 years to start building a civilization? I suspect that developed civilizations have been built several times in the history of mankind, but something mysterious has happened and these civilizations have disappeared. If our civilization disappears soon, in 10,000 years nobody will know that we have ever existed. The metals will be corroded and will be considered by scientists as natural deposits in future, the concrete from our buildings will be considered a natural rock. Scientists of future will write Ph.D. dissertations about it, how in natural way concrete and bricks have been created. Plastic will not exist either because it will be metabolized by microbes Ideonella sakaiensis for example. By the way, if bacteria Ideonella sakaiensis can metabolize plastic it means plastic existed in history, but was eaten by bacteria, so we think that we discovered it.
I suppose, it would be worth to check out by the georadar what is hidden in the interior of the Borobudur pyramid. Maybe there is nothing, but maybe there is something interesting.
More photos of Gunung Padang here (click it)
More photos of Borobudur here (click it)