I have read an article about place where Jews crossed Red Sea. I used Google Earth to find the place. At the bottom I have seen a structure looking as a polygonal chain (photo above). Maybe it was a pipeline? After zooming, it did not look like a pipeline, but rather a wall or a some construction of this type.
I moved to the Gulf of Aden, and there were even more strange structures at the seabed.
Something like a road, traces of a snowcat or foundations of a building.
When I switch to the Indian Ocean then I saw even more interesting places. Linear structures stretched thousands of kilometers.
It looked like someone dug in the bottom of the ocean or rode on a great motorbike.
The photo below shows something like a kind of street layout.
And now the question is whether these are natural creations, or some Google Earth error, whether someone build something at the bottom currently and we do not know anything about it? It could be that in prehistoric eras there was much less water on the surface of Earth than today and those regions were above sea level and some prehistoric civilization developed there. Or it was so long time ago, that it could have been a civilistation of dinosaurs because people did not exist yet.
Recently Chinese lunar lander Chang'e-4 made several importnt discoveries. It has shown that cotton could be grown on the Moon and that the dark side of the Moon is colder during night than this one that faces Earth. The website livescience explains this phenomenon in this way:
"The difference between Chang'e 4's reading and the Apollo missions' is "probably due to the difference in lunar soil composition between the two sides of the moon. We still need more careful analysis," Zhang He, executive director of the Chang'e 4 probe project, told Xinhua.
In other words, something about the lunar dirt where Chang'e 4 sits is probably causing the soil to retain less heat overnight than the Apollo landing sites did. But researchers still aren't sure what that something is."
I suppose the explanation may be that the Earth heats the "light side" of the Moon with infrared radiation emitted towards the Moon. But maybe I am wrong and the power of infrared radiation emitted there is too weak.
From some time I have been doing experiments indicating the possibility of cooling the Earth by the Moon. My hypothesis is that cold infrared radiation cools a surface of Earth. I have made already experiments with ice which suggest that infrared radiation was able to cool. I have bought a thermographic camera and tested which surfaces reflect cold infrared radiation. The camera could measure temperature in a range -40 to +330 degree of Celsjus.
January 19th 2019 during night I measured temperature of the Moon and sky without clouds. Temperature of air was -5°C.. Temperature of the Moon was - 39°C.
The temperature was much lower than I predicted in my previous post "Does moonlight reduce temperature - part II". I based on information taken from WIkipedia. But from Chinese research we know that average temperature of the Moon could be lower. The website science.nasa.gov suggests that temperature of the Moon just under its surface could be constant, even -40°C:
""The tunnels offer a perfect radiation shield and a very benign thermal environment," says Robinson. "Once you get down to 2 meters under the surface of the Moon, the temperature remains fairly constant, probably around -30 to -40 degrees C."
I checked temperature of sky without clouds. It was -43°C
Probably it was the lowest temperature which the camera could register. Probably it was not any infrared radiation from space except radiation of Earth's atmosphere. So I decidet to check how atmosphere distorts measurements. February 2nd 2019 during night I repeatet measurement of Moon temperature. It was almost cloudless night. Air temperature was +2°C. Relative humidity was 80%. I took photo of the Moon by my infrared camera when the Moon was not covered by clouds. Temperature was -29°C, ie. 10°C more than before. Unfortunately I did not measure relative humidity previously.
I also measured the temperature of the sky in a place clouds free. It was -36°C, ie. 7 degrees more than before. Perhaps previously the sky temperature was less than -43°C, but the camera was unable to register a lower temperature.
I began to suspect that the result is related to humidity and air temperature. The next evening, I went to do more measurements. Unluckily it happened the sky was completely clouded. Admittedly in the visible light the Moon was visible through the clouds, but in the infrared - not. I decided to check how it is with the Sun and clouds. On February 24 at 4 p.m. I started to measure temperature of the Sun. Air temperature was -1°C, relative humidity 43%. The sky was covered with clouds, but the Sun was clearly visible. Depend on the thickness of the cloud layer I have got different temperatures of the Sun: +80°C, +56°C, +35°C and even +15°C.
The temperature of the sky in a cloudless place was -36°C. So in the day (-1°C, humid. 43%) the temperature of the sky was the same as at night (+2°C, humid. 80%) and 7 degrees higher when the temperature at night was - 5°C with unknown humidity.
The temperature of the ground and clouds was - 6°C.
Results above are results of preliminary measurements that will be continued.
During experiments with the moonlight I came to the conclusion that the Moon probably cooled, and the cooling medium was infrared radiation. I have bought a thermographic camera lately. I began to check if the infrared rays of cold objects can be reflected from surfaces of metals, wood, plastic, glass and mirror. It turned out that these electromagnetic wavelengths reflect very poorly from the mirror, but good from metals, e.g. aluminum. An infrared camera reacts to infrared radiation, but does the thermometer also? I froze the water in a half-liter metal cup and started experiments shown in pictures below. I set the cup with ice on three boxes of cassette tapes so that the cup would not have direct contact with the floor and would not cool it directly, and also that the infrared radiation would better reflect from the steel bowl covered by a chrome layer placed behind the cup. Thermometer - DT - 11 produced by Termoprodukt company, measuring the temperature to five hundredth degrees, I also placed at a certain height for two reasons. The first one: to limit contact of the thermometer with the the cold air cooled by the cup with ice which spread over the floor. The second reason: to set the tip of the thermometer more or less in the focus of reflected rays from the second bowl. After several minutes the temperature stabilized at 23.72°C.
Then I separated the cup with ice from the thermometer with a cardboard box and removed the bowl behind the cup, which is shown in the picture below. After a few minutes temperature rose to 23.83°C.
Next I uncovered the cup with ice and behind it I set a steel bowl. The temperature started to drop again. After a few minutes it decreased to 23.79°C, which you can see in the pictures below. Seeing that the temperature was falling down, I finished the experiment.
The result of the above experiment suggests that infrared radiation does not only heat objects, but also can cool them.
Sometime ago I tried to check if moonlight was able to cool objects on Earth. I made experiments using a thermometer DT -11 made by the Termprodukt company wich was able to measure temperature with accuracy to 0.05 degree of Celsius. Results were not convincing so I thought about focusing the moonlight. According to my hypothesis the average temperature of the Moon is -23°C (150.15 K) and because of it the most of energy the Moon radiates as infrared waves with wavelength 0.00193 cm, that is 1.93 x 10-5 m. Using my infrared camera I checked how different materials reflect this type of cold radiation. I froze a glass of water in the freezer. The picture below shows an experiment with a mirror. The glass with frozen water is shown in the left photo. The camera indicated the temperature + 3°C. The middle photo shows mirror temperature at a neutral point + 28°C and in the right one - temperature of reflection of the glass with ice + 25°C. The conclusion is that reflecting infrared light in the mirror did not help much in cooling.
Then I checked a glass pane and an aluminum sheet. The pictures below show results of the experiment. The glass sheet gave a result analogous to the mirror, also + 25 ° C. It means the infrared radiation does not penetrate through the glass and does not reach the reflecting surface of the sputtered aluminum in the mirror. The aluminum plate showed an amazing effect of the reflection of these waves, almost one hundred percent. The reflection temperature, just like the directly measured glass, was also 3°C.
I checked also a glass lens. I supposed the lens was not able to transmit infrared light. The photo on the left side shows result of the experiment. The lens reflected me. Temperature of my reflection in the lens was only one degree higher than environment.
This successful experiment with aluminium sheet suggests me to make experiments with an aluminium mirror for focusing moonlight on my thermometer.
On my blog, I have considered the possibility of existence a civilization in Southeast Asia during the ice age. I have mentioned strange stones in Mulao on Cebu island and Chocolate Hills on Bohol island in the Philippines. I have described pyramids of Gunung Padang and Borobudur on Java island in Indonesia. I have also suggested that people could co-exist with dinosaurs on the Lantau Island of Hong Kong. Lately recently, I found David Schneider's article "The Rising Seas" in the "Scientific American" journal of May 1997, which cointained an image (presented above) showing that 20,000 years ago Indochina and Malaya peninsulas were connected with Indonesia. As you can see, it was a large piece of land. As we know, the most number of largest cities in the world, such as Tokyo, Shanghai or New York, are located by the sea. We know from history that people have not changed their fundamental habits for millennia, so 20,000 years ago they settled their colonies by the sea also. So, if we want to find convincing evidences of the existence of cities in the ice age, we should be looking for them on the seabed far away from land, perhaps hundreds of kilometers from the coast. Nowadays, centers of worship are located inland, such as Jasna Góra or Lourdes. Like today, dozens thousands years ago some settlements and centers of worship were inland also. It can be presumed some contemporary centers of worship or holy places may be located on remains of the ancient civilization. Such residues could be the Lalakon mountain (coordinates 06, 57'29.11 "S and 107, 31'15.31" E) and Sadahurip (coordinates 7,179926 S and 108.041611 E) on Java island in Indonesia.
In 2011, members of the Turangga Seta Foundation made research on the Lalakon Mountain. They stated that the GPS signal was garbled there. They measured resistance of ground using the electrical resistivity imaging technique (ERI). Based on the ERI results, they made excavations and discovered stones with a length of 1.1 to 2 m and a width of 0.3 to 0.4 m arranged in layers (photo on the left side taken from the article "Pyramid Lalakon dan Sadahurip"). Researchers concluded that the Lalakon hill was not created naturally, but was an artificially raised pyramidal mound. According to the head of the research group Agung Bimo Sutedjo, the found boulders formed an angle of 30 degrees with the level. The figure below, taken from this same article, shows the hypothetical construction of the Lalakon mountain.
Research suggests existence of an artificial construction inside the Lalakon mountain, as it is shown in the image obtained with the ERI results.
I wanted to see it by myself. In a small restaurant near the mountain, the driver who drove me there, asked the owner of the restaurant about the secrets of the pyramid. The owner of the restaurant long time spoke about the mountain but in Indonesian. I could not understand anything. Next the driver tried to explain me what he heard. Unfortunately, I do not know Indonesian and the driver could not speak either Polish nor Russian, only a little bit of English. The only thing I found out was that Lalakon was a holy mountain and you could not do bad things on it, because the mountain would punish you. The mountain had a wide range of penalties from losing your way home to death. If you wanted to do something that you supposed the mountain could not like, you had to ask it for permission. It should look like this. You had to focus on what you wanted to do and ask for permission. If you felt in your soul, that the mountain agreed, then you could do it. If not, then no, because the mountain would punish you. The driver found me a guide (unnecessarily, because the way to the top was easy), who spoke only in Indonesian. The driver stayed at the foot of the mountain and the guide and me went to the top.
One half of the peak was cleaned of trees and leveled. On this side there was a base transceiver station (BTS), which is shown in the pictures below. Maybe it jammed the GPS signal which was reported by researchers from the Turangga Seta Foundation. The other half of the top was covered with dense bushes, what you can see in the background of the first photo below.
I had a compass with me. I checked where the North was, where the South and which peaks were located near the North - South line.
As you can see on the North - South axis there is no significant mountain towards the South, but I found a peak biased about 20 degrees from the South - North line, which the guide called Sana. He even wrote this name on a piece of paper. Google Earth has not found a mountain with this name in the area. I checked Google Translator and it turned out that "sana" means "there" in Indonesian. I stayed with this name and I marked it on my map. This mountain has an interesting shape. As you can see in the picture from Google Earth, Sana has the shape of a triangular pyramid, which means that it can also be an ancient pyramid.
In the northern direction on the Sana - Lalakon line was the Tangkuban Perahu volcano. The guide written this name on my piece of paper. This volcano was found by Google Earth, and even Wikipedia mentioned it. The last eruption was in 2013. The photo towards the North is shown below.
In the image downloaded from Google Earth you can see the mutual position of these three hills. The blue line shows that these three mountains lie exactly on one straight line.
You could see that the compass did not go crazy, because Google Earth showed more or less the same deviation of the Sana - Lalakon line as well as the compass. It seems Lalakon affects the GPS signal, but not the usual compass. The magnetic declination in this area is minimal, which means that the southern magnetic pole coincides almost perfectly with the northern geographic pole, i.e. the indications of Google Earth and the compass are almost identical.
I entered in the bushes adjacent to the BTS and found there some stones that looked like old sculptures and elements of buildings.
Near the top, I found other interesting stones that looked like someone was drilling in them and installed clamps or anchor plates.
One of the stones has already been painted by someone. It seems that I have not been the first who found it.
I have climbed to the second of the pyramids mentioned at the beginning of the article, namely Sadahurip. On the eve of my trip, the mountain looked very nice.
But on the day when I was climbing it the top was covered with fog.
Apparently Sadahurip was also a mountain with a soul just like Lalakon and it did not like that someone like me wanted to climb. Mountainsides were covered with farmlands almost to the top.
Farmlands at the mountainsides are shown even in Google Earth.
The path leading to the top was soaked by moisture and very slippery.
The peak was flat. Interestingly, there were no trees or thick bushes there. I wondered why hard ground was in the center, without any vegetation. In such climatic conditions, the area of packed soil should become green within a few days. Apparently, someone takes care about the top of the mountain and removes all plants from the certain zone.
Due to the dense fog I could not see the area around the hill. The compass was unuseful because I could not see any characteristic points.
I did not find any interesting objects at the top and near it. I have not searched too carefully, because it was very slippery and walking on the slope around the top was dangerous. It seems that due to intensive farming on the mountainsides all artifacts that could be found have already been collected, large stones - removed. I suppose researches with ERI and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) could broaden our knowledge about this mountain. It was interesting that someone cared that the center of the top was without thick vegetation. Even vegetation at all. Perhaps until today some rituals are held here. It is not strange for me because on all the world people perform some rituals in certain places, which are secret or commercial. For some people it is a local tradition without a deeper meaning, for others - something with a deep spiritual value.
Looking at the map of Indonesia on Google Maps, you can easy notice that the sea between Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Malay Peninsula and Indochina is relatively shallow. There are shallow sea between Borneo, Palawan and Davao also. In the Ice Age, the sea level was about 150 m lower than at present times. At that time islands were much larger, and perhaps even a land connection existed among them. In my previous posts in my blog "Is it possible that there was an ancient civilisation in the Philippines thausands of years ago" and "Is it possible that there was an ancient civilisation in the Philippines thausands of years ago - Bohol" I suggested possibility of existence of a prehistoric civilisation there. A stay in Indonesia confirmed my conviction. I visited there many mysterious places, among them Gunung Padang and Borobudur.
Wikipedia describes Gunung Padang:
"Located at 885 metres above sea level, the site covers a hill in a series of terraces bordered by retaining walls of stone that are accessed by about 400 successive andesite steps rising about 95 metres. It is covered with massive rectangular stones of volcanic origin. The Sundanese people consider the site sacred and believe it was the result of King Siliwangi's attempt to build a palace in one night. The asymmetric Punden Berundak faces northwest, to Mount Gede and was constructed for the purpose of worship. Based on various dating techniques, the site was completed by 5000 BC and quite likely much earlier."
"Gunung Padang was originally a natural volcano
Around 10,000 years ago, possibly back to 20,000 BC, the modifications to the hill began.
Around 9,000 years ago, it began the construction of it being wrapped in andesite columns.
Around 7,000 years ago, the site was renovated once more and they added parallel layers of stone columns.
Around 3,000 years ago, a new group covered the structure in soil."
"A survey conducted in 2012 showed the following:
The site was dated 6,500 years BP (before present) by carbon radiometric dating at 3–4 metres below the surface (12,500 years at 8 to 10 metres below the surface), and the artifacts at the surface date to about 4,800 years BP.
Based on geoelectric, georadar, and geomagnetic testing, at least up to 15 metres from the surface there is construction with large chambers.
Unlike the south side with its 5 stone terraces, the east side has 100 stone terraces with width and height of 2x2 metres. The west side also has stone terraces but is still covered by soil and bush, and the north side has, in addition to a 1.5 metre-wide stair, terraces also.
The site area is approximately 25 hectares, in contrast for example to Borobudur Temple, which occupies only 1.5 hectares."
This was Wikipedia. But an article "Gunung Padang - Southeast Asia's Largest and Most Enigmatic Megalithic Complex is it a Pyramid Hill 12,000 Years Older Than Gobekli Tepe" informs:
"Conventionally, archaeologists and historians place the construction of Gunung Padang’s megalithic structures firmly within the Bronze Age, ca. 2500-1500 BC. However, geological surveys conducted at the site since 2011 by Indonesian geologist Danny Hilman Natawidjaja of the Indonesian Centre for Geotechnical Research suggest the monument is much older – much older indeed.Core drilling samples and other exploratory excavations have uncovered evidence that Gunung Padang is a multi-leveled structure, one phase being built on top of the next, with evidence of activity on the hill at 22,000-20,000 BC, 14,700 BC, 9,600 BC, 4700 BC and 2800 BC, the final date being the age of the megalithic structures visible today. Indeed, Danny Hilman and his team now believe that the entire hill is an artificial pyramid of incredible antiquity. If correct, this would make it the oldest built structure anywhere in the world. The ranges of dates cited above derive from carbon-14 testing of organic materials taken from core drilling samples extracted from a series of different depths."
"Danny agrees with this theory. 3D geo-electric, geo-magnetic and geo-radar surveys have revealed the presence of a hollow chamber 10 metres in width, height and length at a depth beneath the hill of approximately 25 metres. It apparently even has two doors in its hallway. He adds that the existence of this suspected cave chamber was the most likely impetus behind the construction of the multi-layered pyramid structure as early as the Upper Palaeolithic age. This is supported by the organic samples extracted from this great depth, which have produced radiocarbon dates in the range of 22,000-20,000 BC."
According to the article above, the technical activity of people on this hill began at least 24,000 years ago. Subsequent layers added in the next millennia had religious character and probably covered something that had practical nature for the residents lived in Java dozens thousands years ago. This idea appeared in my mind after visit in Borobudur.
Borobudur is described by Wikipedia:
"Borobudur is a 9th - century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia. It is the world's largest Buddhist temple. The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. It is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. "
Climbing up the pyramid you can see strange gargoyles. An example of one of them you can see in photos shown below. It looks like a being from another world, or like a technical device.
But the most interesting is the top of the pyramid. The summit is dotted with stupas (a photo on the left side). The stupa is, according to Wikipedia:
"a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (such as śarīra – typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, and stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them.
Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya.
Some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterraneanto the Indus valley, and can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia (tomb of Midas, 8th c. BCE), Lydia (such as the tomb of Alyattes, 6th c. BCE), or in Phoenicia (tombs of Amrit, 5th c. BCE)".
Inside each stupa at the top of the Borobudur pyramid there is a sitting Buddha, what is shown in the picture below.
It is visible better in the photo of the mockup of the stupa, which I bought at a market near the pyramid.
A closed stupa reminds me of a Gemini vehicle from American space programme. Perhaps stupas are reminiscences of vehicles that existed in the past. The Buddhist temple was built on an older temple dedicated to Shiva. It could be that the temple of Shiva was built at a prehistoric airport for some type of flying vehicles. They did not have to be spaceships. It could have been airplanes that exceeded the sound barrier. This special shape made it easier. Of course, the stupa may not be complete. Maybe it could be missing something? For example propellers on the top. Maybe it was a kind of a coaxial helicopter and at the top of the vehicle - stupa was placed two counter-rotating rotors. Rotors were not visible during the flight, so the stupa's builders overlooked this element, considering it to be insignificant.
Below it is the plan of the pyramid photographed from the book "Memories of Majapahit".
Looking at this picture, you can associated it with a helicopter landing pad on the roof of a skyscraper.
Landing many vehicles on the roof of a skyscraper is not such a dream. Uber has an idea how to improve the transport, which is presented in the picture below.
It may turn out that Borobudur is a memory of something that existed dozens thousands of years ago. Perhaps the temples, whose last stages were the temples of Shiva, and then Buddha, covered something that was built several dozen thousands years ago. Some cataclysm destroyed the technical civilization, and the memory of it was saved in the structure of Borobudur.
According to anthropological theories, modern man has been living on Earth since 200,000 years. Our civilization has been developing for over dozen thousand years. If a man from 200,000 years ago had the same intellectual and physical abilities as people living now, why has he waited over 180,000 years to start building a civilization? I suspect that developed civilizations have been built several times in the history of mankind, but something mysterious has happened and these civilizations have disappeared. If our civilization disappears soon, in 10,000 years nobody will know that we have ever existed. The metals will be corroded and will be considered by scientists as natural deposits in future, the concrete from our buildings will be considered a natural rock. Scientists of future will write Ph.D. dissertations about it, how in natural way concrete and bricks have been created. Plastic will not exist either because it will be metabolized by microbes Ideonella sakaiensis for example. By the way, if bacteria Ideonella sakaiensis can metabolize plastic it means plastic existed in history, but was eaten by bacteria, so we think that we discovered it.
I suppose, it would be worth to check out by the georadar what is hidden in the interior of the Borobudur pyramid. Maybe there is nothing, but maybe there is something interesting.
More photos of Gunung Padang here (click it)
More photos of Borobudur here (click it)
Time to time we read reports that someone found an artifact which could be produced millions years ago. For example the website ancient-code.com describes a hammer which could be 400 millions years old and a 300 million-year-old screw. Some time ago, in one of my posts on my blog, I suggested that these artifacts could be not so old. They could be several dozen or several hundreds years old, because there could be specific processes occurring in nature which would be faster than we think. I tried to find the processes. From publications of D.C. Golden, ... "DISSOLUTION OF OLIVINE, SIDERITE, AND BASALT AT 80°C IN 0.1 M H2SO4 IN A FLOW THROUGH PROCESS: INSIGHTS INTO ACIDIC WEATHERING ON MARS." printed in 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2012) we know that rocks listed in the article are relatively easy to dissolve in acids. Dissolution of basalt and depositing secondary minerals was described by Beryl Nashai, ... in "Solubility of basalt under atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure". Also E. M. Hausrath and S. L. Brantley in "Basalt and olivine dissolution under cold, salty, and acidic conditions: What can we learn about recent aqueous weathering on Mars?" reported it.
So, if in laboratories scientists can dissolve basalts and other rocks and get secondary minerals, maybe in nature is it possible also?
I carried out a simple experiment using vinegar and limestone. Limestone is popular rock in nature and acetic acid is produced by bacteria fermentation. Limestone stone immersed in vinegar from my experiment is shown in the picture above (you can enlarge it clicking on the photo). After several days the stone was dissolved partially in vinegar and sediment appeared on the bottom. I pulled the stone out of the jar and added steel filings to the solution to increase the volume of the material. Filings were reacted with vinegar. A thick layer of sediment formed on the bottom, so I slipped a steel plate into it to have some artifact in the stone that I hoped to receive. I have put the jar on the window sill without a cap so that the liquid would evaporate freely. The suspension was dark, with time it became black and the Sun was heating it to high temperatures.
A photo of the suspension immediately after mixing is shown on the left side. After month, the liquid evaporated and I received a stone at the bottom of the jar. By heating in the fire and cooling with water the bottom of the jar I caused the glass to crumble and next I was able to take in my hands a fossil with an artifact of the corroded lamina. You can see it in the picture on the end of the post. As you can see, obtaining the fossil with the artifact took less time than millions of years. The microchip found in Krasnodar, Russia, which was dated to between 225 and 250 million years ago, could have been created several dozens years ago.
In a similar way, only on a larger scale, our ancestors could produce huge boulders right in the right place. Building pyramids and other ancient stone constructions could have been simpler than we suppose. Joseph Davidovits suggests that many stones of pyramids were made from concrete. The website davidovits.info describes it in this way:
"Some of the massive blocks making up the great pyramids of Giza in Egypt (pictured) are not limestone, but a synthetic mix like concrete, argue materials scientists. The paper by Michel Barsoum of Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and his colleagues is the latest entry in a decades-long argument. Most Egyptologists reject the idea, put forth in the mid-1980s by French chemist Joseph Davidovits, that the pyramids contain concrete. Barsoum’s team took a fresh look at 15 samples using scanning- and transmission-electron microscopes. The samples contain ratios of elements, such as calcium and magnesium, that do not exist in nearby limestone. The imaging also revealed regions of amorphous structure. Both observations suggest that other substances were added to make a concrete mix, say the authors"
Ancient constructors could have big knowledge about dissolving rocks and creating secondary minerals and building monumental constructions was easy for them.
IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THERE WAS A TECHNICAL CIVILIZATION IN THE PHILIPPINES THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO? - Bohol
During my stay in Philippines I visited Bohol island where I have seen Chocolate Hills. In the picture on the left side (you can enlarge it by clicking on it) you can see treeless hills which grow from a jungle. If you look on the hills from smaller distance you can see that they are covered by two kinds of grass. Wikipedia specifies that there are species: Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum. The grass is shown in photos below. I cannot distinguish species of the grasses so I call them grass 1 and grass 2.
But there are also other hills covered with forest, as in the picture below.
There are many hills covered by forest around Chocolate Hills but they look like normal hills. Some of hills of Chocolate Hills are partially covered by forest.
How these hills were created?
The website bohol-philippines.com explains:
"The most acceptable geological theory of the Chocolate Hills of Bohol is that the hills were the result of thousands of years of weathering of marine limestone. Others say that the hills were formed ages ago by the uplift of coral deposits or that they erupted from the sea in a massive geologic shift, and the action of rain water and erosion for the past thousand years put in the finishing touches."
Wikipedia says about it:
"The Chocolate Hills are conical karst hills similar to those seen in the limestone regions of Slovenia, Croatia, northern Puerto Rico, and Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. These hills consist of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thin to medium bedded, sandy to rubbly marinelimestones. These limestones contain the abundant fossils of shallow marine foraminifera, coral, mollusks, and algae. These conical hills are geomorphological features called cockpit karst, which were created by a combination of the dissolution of limestone by rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, and their subaerial erosion by rivers and streams after they had been uplifted above sea level and fractured by tectonic processes. These hills are separated by well developed flat plains and contain numerous caves and springs. The Chocolate Hills are considered to be a remarkable example of conical karst topography.
The origin for the conical karst of the Chocolate Hills is described in popular terms on the bronze plaque at the viewing deck in Carmen, Bohol. This plaque states that they are eroded formations of a type of marine limestone that sits on top of hardened clay. The plaque reads:
The unique land form known as the Chocolate Hills of Bohol was formed ages ago by the uplift of coral deposits and the action of rain water and erosion.
The plaque also makes reference to a fanciful explanation of the origin of the Chocolate Hills that is unsupported by any published scientific research, i.e. either Hillmer or Travaglia and others, when it states:
the grassy hills were once coral reefs that erupted from the sea in a massive geologic shift. Wind and water put on the finishing touches over hundreds of thousands of years.
Self-published, popular web pages present a variety of fanciful and less credible explanations about how these hills formed. They include sub-oceanic volcanism; limestone covered blocks created by the destruction of an active volcano in a cataclysmic eruption;coral reefs that were raised from the sea as the result of a massive geologic shift; and tidal movements. The lack of any exposed or associated volcanic rocks anywhere in the Chocolate Hills refutes the popular theories involving volcanic eruptions. These theories involving either a sudden, massive geologic shift, coral reefs being erupted from the sea, or tidal movements lack any corroborating evidence and support among geologists."
Wikipedia claims that "The Chocolate Hills are conical karst hills similar to those seen in the limestone regions of Slovenia, Croatia, northern Puerto Rico, and Pinar del Río Province, Cuba."
I checked photos of the other karst hills in other regions of the world in internet and for me the Bohol's hills are totally different.
Wikipedia suggests that such a rock, as shown in the picture below (corral reef near Moalboal - Cebu) has been lifted above the water surface, then crushed by tectonic processes and erosion into rock debris and formed into regular mounds separated from each other by flat surfaces.
The hills on Cebu neighbouring Bohol look like in the picture below. Their shape is quite common around the world. It seems that they are created from limestone also, as it is suggested by white stains visible among vegetation.
Wikipedia claims that as a result of tectonic processes, I guess earthquakes, and erosion arose rock debris which formed Chocolate Hills. It could be so, but it did not have to. Materials from which the hills are made are sand and small stones. Wikipedia noted it also. My guess is that earthquakes could have formed large irregular stones that could have been rounded up by surface water. But sand and small rubble? To smash rock to rubble and sand tha land should be covered by sea again and sea waves and sea currents crushed the stones to sand and rubble. Or winters appeared in Bohol and water penetrating into the clefts of the rock froze and crumbled the rock. Well, in the ice age it could be so that the winter occurred in the Philippines. But why is there not so much rubble on the neighboring Cebu Island? Unless the rubble was turned into soil and covered with vegetation. We can consider an other variant. There were no winters. It was very warm (I considered this situation in my post here) and if there was a lot of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thanks to which the vegetation flourished very richly, it rooted in the cracks in the rocks, which have been splitted by the roots. Perhaps it is similar on other islands, only that the rock material has been so shredded that we have soil from it. But on Cebu there are rocky mountains still.
Another question is why this rubble was concentrated in these mounds called Chocolate Hills and various types of debris were separated between the individual mounds, as evidenced by the different species of grass grow on the hills?
It is very difficult to find answer based on natural processes.
Looking at the Chocolate Hills you can see that they are more similar to the hill in the picture on the left side than to mountains. The simplest explanation is that someone just built them. But for what purpose? Probably we will never find out. It is also unknown when Wanda Mound located in my hometown Kraków, (depicted in the picture on the left side) was built, who built it, for what purpose and in what way. People from a dozen thousands years ago had a different mentality, different beliefs, different goals. In 10,000 years no one will know the purpose of many things which we use everyday. Scientists of future will write scientific dissertations on the destiny of, for example, laptops. The electric current can come out of use and will be replaced with, for example, light or other type of energy that we do not even imagine yet, and which will be discovered, for example, in 50 years. After thousands of years no one will remember that there was a time, that almost everything was powered by electricity and without electricity even it was no water in houses. Another example. Geologists of future will find our atomic shelters. Until then, limestone from cement will dissolve, creating stalactites and stalagmites in the shelter rooms, which will cease to resemble rooms known to us. The stairs will smooth out and will not resemble stairs. These processes can happen faster than we suppose. Scientists of future will consider concrete as a natural rock and will claim that underground caves were formed spontaneously.
Coming back to Chocolate Hills, from all the world we know tumuli. They have similar shapes to Chocolate Hills but usually they are smaller. Usually they contain graves. But we know hills which look like tumuli but they have not graves inside for example Wanda Mound or Krakus Mound. It could be that initially hills like the Krakus Mound were built for a different purpose than the tombs. They began to be built as burial mounds later. Chocolate Hills could have been built for different aims than tumuli. History of Egyptian pyramids give a certain hint. Usually these pyramids are treated as tombs of pharaohs. The website sacred-texts.com inform us:
"MASOUDI, who died in the year 967 A.D., professes to relate the Coptic tradition, which says, "that Surid * Ben Shaluk Ben Sermuni Ben Termidun Ben Tedresan Ben Sal, one of the kings of Egypt before the Flood, built the two great pyramids; and notwithstanding they were subsequently named after a person called Shed-dad Ben Ad, that they were not built by the Adites, who could not conquer Egypt, on account of the powers which the Egyptians possessed by means of enchantment; that the reason forp. 99
building the Pyramids was the following dream, which happened to Surid three hundred years previous to the Flood. It appeared to him, that the earth was overthrown, and that the inhabitants were laid prostrate upon it; that the stars wandered confusedly from their courses, and clashed together with a tremendous noise. The king, although greatly affected by this vision, did not disclose it to any person, but was conscious that some great event was about to take place." Soon afterwards the king had another vision, which so much alarmed him that he repaired to the Temple of the Sun, "where, with great lamentations, he prostrated himself in the dust. Early in the morning he assembled the chief priests from all the Nomes of Egypt, a hundred and thirty in number. No other persons were admitted to this assembly, when he related his first and his second vision. The interpretation was declared to announce, 'that some great event would take place.'" The high-priest, whose name was Philimon, or Iklimon, related a dream which he had had a year before, in which the firmament descended till it overshadowed him and the king like a vault as they sat upon the tower of Amasis. "The king then directed the astrologers to ascertain, by taking the altitude,
whether the stars foretold any great catastrophe, and the result announced an approaching deluge. * The king ordered them to inquire, whether or not this calamity would befal Egypt; and they answered, Yes, the flood will overwhelm the land, and destroy a large portion of it for some years. He ordered them to inquire if the earth would again become fruitful, or if it would continue to be covered with water. They answered that its former fertility would return. The king demanded what would then happen. He was informed that a stranger would invade the country, kill the inhabitants, and seize upon their property; and that afterwards a deformed people, coming from beyond the Nile, would take possession of the kingdom, upon which the king ordered the Pyramids to be built, and the predictions of the priests to be inscribed upon columns, and upon the large stones belonging to them; and he placed within them his treasures, and all his valuable property, together with the bodies of his ancestors. He also ordered the priests to deposit within them written accounts of their wisdom and acquirements in the different arts
and sciences. * Subterraneous channels were also constructed to convey to them the waters of the Nile. He filled the passages with talismans, with wonderful things and idols, and with the writings of the priests, containing all manner of wisdom, the names and properties of medical plants, and the sciences of arithmetic and geometry, that they might remain as records, for the benefit of those who would afterwards comprehend them." After describing the construction of the three pyramids, Masoudi, says, "In the eastern (Great) Pyramid were inscribed the heavenly spheres, and figures representing the stars and planets in the forms in which they were worshipped. The king also deposited the instruments and the thuribula with which his forefathers had sacrificed to the stars, and also their writings; likewise, the position of the stars and their circles, together with the history and chronicles of time past, of that which is to come, and of every future event which would take place in Egypt. He placed there, also, coloured basins (for lustration and sacrificial purposes),
with pure water, and other matters." After referring to the deposit of the bodies of the priests in the coloured (Third) Pyramid, Masoudi describes the guardians assigned by the king to each pyramid. "The guardian of the eastern pyramid was an idol of speckled granite, standing upright, with a weapon like a spear in his hand; a serpent was wreathed round his head, which seized upon and strangled whoever approached, by twisting round his neck, when it again returned to its former position upon the idol. . . . When everything was finished, he caused the Pyramids to be haunted with living spirits; and offered up sacrifices to prevent the intrusion of strangers, and of all persons excepting those who by their conduct were worthy of admission." The author then says, that, according to the Coptic account, the following passage was inscribed, in Arabic, upon the Pyramids: I, Surid the King, have built these Pyramids, and have finished them in sixty-one years. Let him, who comes after me, and imagines himself a king like me, attempt to destroy them in six hundred. To destroy is easier than to build. I have clothed them with silk: let him try to cover them with mats." "
If ancient Egyptians could do it, why not the ancient Filipinos?
Let's look at the map of the Philippines from Google Earth.
Bohol Island lies in the central part of the shoal which at the time when the sea level was lower could be a mainland. Hypothesis that the Philippines had a land connection not only between their islands, but also with Indonesia (Borneo, Celebes) can confirm occurrence of tarsiers there. Tarsiers are limited to these areas, and supposedly half of their world's population lives on the island of Bohol.
So, if a deluge was expected, Bohol was best suited for storing precious things of the ancient Philippine civilization. Waves of the flood could have shed over Bohol and other islands and after it there was none to dig out the hidden treasures. People who survived were unable to rebuild that civilization and after several generations they even forgot that they ever had some civilisation. Maybe the assignment of Chocolate Hills was completely different and there is nothing inside. We will never understand the motivation of people from thousands of years ago. What they believed in, what goals they had in life and for what reason they undertook mysterious for us activities will remain a mystery.
On April 30th, 2018 I took photos of the full moon using my photo camera Nikon P-900 in Kraków - Nowa Huta. On the left side it is one of the photos of the Moon (you can enlarge it by clicking on it). At one point the plane flew leaving behind a streak (contrail or chemtrail, I do not know). On both sides of the streak I noticed gleaming points. You can see them in the photo below. The first point is between the Moon and the streak, the second one - below the streak.
I took another picture (below) with higher zoom in which you can see that the object below the streak did not change its position, while the object above the streak approached it.
I increased the mysterious points in the photo above. You can see them in photos below.
The gray - black object, which did not changed its position, is Jupiter probably. I took similar photos of Jupiter on April 13th, 2018. One of them you can see in the photo below.
The second object was moving at that time. You can see it in photos below. In the first photo the object was disappearing near the streak and in the next one it appeared near the Moon.
I enlarged the image of the object and presented it below.
I do not know what it could be. It may be a reflection of light in a lens but it could be something else also.
Some time ago I have been in the Philippines and I have seen something strange in the area near Mulao on Cebu island. Near the village there is a section of the river, where there is little water, but there are quite large stones in it, with unusual shapes. On the left side it is shown a picture from Google Maps with pointed the village and the most important stone in the river.
The place is located about 10 km from the coast in a hilly area, which can be seen on the map downloaded from Google Earth (on the left side). The Cotcot river is not too long, as you can see in Google Maps. It seems its length is about 40 km. The river has not big downslopes.
I came to a place called on Google Maps as Ark Stone.
In this area there are a lot of stones with various shapes. It looks like ancient quarry. I suppose, water of this river was not able to move stones of this size, even in the rainy season (I have been there on beginning of rainy season). They could have fallen down from surrounding hills, of course. But why only in this place? The stone shown in the picture on the left side is really big and rather the small river could not bring it here from another place. Probably it had arisen there where it laid, or slipped off a nearby hill. Generally, the river looks like in the picture below.
In the foreground it is a stone that looks like a piece of it was cut off with some tool. The cut-out is shown in the picture on the left side (You can click the photo to enlarge it). It looks like someone in the upper part has stuck or drilled some nails or drills. There are more such interesting stones. In the photo below I present another interesting object that reminds me of a carved face.
The next photo shows a rectangular complement of the stone with other material. It looks like someone drilled a rectangular hole and then concreted it.
Below I am presenting a picture of the most important stone in that area there called Stone Ark. The stone looks like a huge sphere. For presentation its size I placed my picture on the background of this stone as the next photo below.
Not only in the river there were interesting things. In the vicinity of the top of one of surroundings hills I have seen an interesting specimen that looked like it was treated with some tools. I am presenting it in the picture below.
Currently, the Philippines is a complex of islands. But in the past it could have been different. According to current research, in the ice age the level of oceans was about 130 m lower than at present, as it is shown in the graph under this link. According to my oryginal hypothesis, the sea level could have decreased not only in the ice age, but also during very warm periods, as I described it in one of the posts in my blog. The seas among the Philippine islands do not belong to the group of the deepest, as it is shown in the picture from Google Earth below.
According to the ICES Journal of Marine Science (2012), 69 (3), 410-420 Visayan sea lying in the center of the Philippines limited by the islands: Mabate, Leyte, Cebu, Negros, Panay is not deeper than 50 m at the most of its area and its the largest depth is 150 m. So, according to contemporary knowledge, during the glaciation these islands formed one land. Probably there were land connections between the other islands. Under such conditions, some civilization could develop in the ice age. People founded settlements over large rivers and lakes. The Cotcot River in its part that I have seen, probably 15,000 years ago looked like today. But in the part where is the Visayan Sea now it could have been a large river and even could be created a lake. In the past human settlements could have been concentrated in area where is the center of the sea now. Currently, the remains of that civilization can be covered with sand or overgrown with coral reefs and nobody supposes that under that layer can be products of human hands thousands of years old.